Early Wheatstone Duet tutor

copied in and contributed by: "Robert Gaskins" robertgaskins@gaskins.org

[From a photocopy of item in the web archives of the Center for the Study of Free-Reed Instruments, http://web.gsuc.cuny.edu/freereed, The Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10016 photocopy provided by the courtesy of the Director of the CSFRI, Professor Allan W. Atlas ( freereed@gc.cuny.edu ).]


[page 1, front cover]

                         for Performing on
                     PATENT DUETT CONCERTINA.

                  Ent. Sta. Hall.       Price 2/-


      Wheatstone & Co. Inventors & Patentees of the Concertina,
                  & Manufacturers of Harmoniums.
                   20 Conduit Strt. Regent Strt.

                          Just Published.
     Selections of Faborite Airs for Do.  Price each Book, 2/-
          No. 1. Scotch Airs.   |   No. 4. Operatic Airs.
              2. Irish  Do.     |       5. National & Patriotic Airs
              3. Sacred Do.     |       6. Dance Music.
                        To be Continued.

                 [Accession Mark of British Museum,
                    name with seal inside oval]
         [last page shows this copy deposited on 28 July 1855]

[page no.] 2


  The Patent Duett Concertina possesses advantages hitherto unobtained
in a single Musical Instrument; in fact, it is two Concertinas in one,
the left hand end being used as an accompaniment to the right or
treble; each end having a perfect scale of itself, so that a melody
can be played on either without any assistance from the other.  This
Instrument is double action, and enables the performer to articulate
and to give that effect to slurred staccato passages which is produced
with such perfection on the Violin and Flute.  Another advantage of
this Concertina is, that the accompanying scale or second is entirely
on the opposite end played by the other hand, which enables one hand
to act without disturbing the execution of the other; and being in a
different case, each Instrument thus separated by the bellows from the
other, gives individuality and distinctness to the melody which can
only be appreciated by hearing the effect.


   The part on which the Inventor's name is stamped distinguishes the
right hand and treble end of the Instrument, which is placed uppermost
in the box, the part where the metal button which secures the thumb
straps being uppermost when played, the studs being furthest from the
performer.  The Duett Concertina is held by inserting the hands
between the projecting pieces and the straps on each end in such a
manner, that the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th fingers are at full liberty to
act on their respective rows of studs.  The left hand side of the
Concertina should rest on the knee somewhat raised, and care should be
taken that the folds of the bellows do not rub against the dress.  The
Instrument should be kept as nearly as possible in a horizontal
position.  The straps are made to adjust, and can be altered to suit
the performer's hands by unscrewing and re-inserting the metal buttons
after sliding the strap through the metal loop to the size required.

[in smaller type below a page-width rule:]

   Many persons having formed opinions very prejudicial to the
Concertina, in consequence of mistaking for the original, an imitation
called the German Concertina, the public is informed, that, the so
called instrument is totally different (with the exception of the
exterior), both as regards fingering and construction, in which it is
identical with the Accordion.  The Concertina, as patented, may be
distinguished by the circumstance, that any key being touched, the
same sound will be produced whichever way the bellows is moved.

[page no.] 3


   The bellows should never be drawn out or closed, unless a stud is
at the same time pressed down; because by this the bellows would be
strained without producing any sound, also no sound will be produced
if a stop be pressed and the bellows be not at the same time moved; by
which it will be seen that the opening of a stop enables the performer
to produce the required sound only on moving the bellows.  The bellows
is expanded and contracted by the action of the right arm, while the
fingers of each hand act on the studs.  The bellows should not be
alternately drawn out and pressed in for each successive note as is
required to be done when playing on the Accordion; this should be
avoided as much as possible, and the bellows drawn out to nearly the
full extent and then pressed nearly close together, observing to keep
the two ends of the Instrument parallel to each other.  The bellows of
the Duett Concertina, whether open or closed, is always in a position
to produce the required sound; hence there is no occasion for the key
or valve with which the different kinds of Accordions are incumbered.
The piano's fortes, crescendos, diminuendos, &c; are all regulated by
the action of the bellows, accordingly as it is moved gently or
strongly, and is effected by gradually increasing or diminishing the
movements of the hand.  On first commencing the tones should be played
very softly; this gives a sensibility to the hand, which would be lost
if the performer were to commence by playing loud.  The first practice
will be to play long sustained notes equally soft throughout, using no
more motion that is necessary to produce the sounds; when this is
acquired, the tones may be increased and diminished; then the scales
or portions of them may be played in a similar manner.  Although the
tones of this Instrument produce at once an agreeable effect, they are
capable of considerable improvement by practice, and are to be
cultivated so as to produce some difference in the quality according
to the firmness or the delicacy of handling the bellows by the
performer.  Particular care should be taken that the bellows be not
moved suddenly or with violence which would only be the means of
forcing the Instrument out of tune and of producing a harsh and
disagreeable effect.

   Before depositing the Instrument in its case if the performer does
not manage to finish the tune by closing the bellows, the air
remaining in it may be expelled by sounding a chord.

[page no.] 4

[Diagram of 24 keys, 12 keys per end,
arranged in 5 rows (of 3, 3, 2, 3, 1)
giving a C-major scale from G up to C
and on to octave C above (plus one F#
for the G-major scale) on each end.
The diagram shows the studs in vertical
rows superimposed on the lines and
spaces of a treble staff plus ledger lines.]

                    SCALE OF THE DUETT CONCERTINA.
             LEFT HAND.                       RIGHT HAND.

       4th finger                  |
       v     3rd finger            |                       -(C)-
             v     2nd finger      |            (B)
                   v     1st finger|           ----- -(A)- -----
                         v         |      (G)
                                   |            (E)
treble                  (C)        |      (C)
clef              (A)              |            (A)
                        (F)   (#)  |
                  (D)              |       ^
     -(C)- -----       -----       |finger 1st   ^
                        (B)        |      finger 2nd   ^
     ----- -(A)-                   |            finger 3rd   ^
      (G)                          |                  finger 4th
                                 F |                                 F
G  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  A  B  C  # |G  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  A  B  C  #
     [treble staff with notes corresponding to 24 names above it]
4  3  1  4  2  3  1  4  2  3  1  1 |1  2  4  1  3  2  4  1  3  2  4  4
[G]* If the performer can conveniently use the thumb for this note it
will be a considerable advantage when played immediately followed by
the C or G studs in the same row.

[page no.] 5

   Each finger being kept over its respective row of studs, if the
scale on the right hand be commenced from the key note of C the notes
in the octave with be played by a repetition of the movement of the
1st, 3rd, 2nd and 4th fingers; and on the left hand side by similarly
repeated the 4th, 2nd, 3rd and 1st, being the right hand inverted.

   The simplicity of the scale is such, that the studs themselves can
be readily compared with the places of the notes on the music staff
without the intervention of a letter, or the clumsy addition of
figures to represent the notes.

   It will be seen by the scale preceding that the four highest notes
on the left are the same as the four lowest on the right hand of the
Instrument; and the studs pressed down by the 1st and 2nd fingers
produce those notes that are between the lines of the music staff, and
those pressed down by the 3rd and 4th those that are on the lines;
this rule applies to both ends of the Instrument excepting the lowest
stud on each end.  By pressing down the two studs on either of the
outside rows in a slanting position to each other, thirds are
produced; and two taken in a right line onwards give fifths, excepting
the lowest G, which, when taken with its adjoining note produce a
second with its diagonal, and a fourth with its vertical stud above.

[page no.] 6

[scale exercises]

   The notes with their stems downward are on the left hand end of the
Instrument; those turned upwards are on the right hand end; and those
having stems both ways may be played at either end at pleasure, or at
both ends, in which case they will be unisons.

[treble staff with twenty notes of the scale from G below middle-C to
second C above middle-C; the first eight with stems down, the middle
four with stems down and up, the last eight with stems up, all with
fingering shown as a number at end of the note stem]

[similar staff with twenty-nine notes from middle-C to second C above
middle-C and back down to middle-C, with fingering numbers]

[similar staff with one sharp, twenty-nine notes from G below middle-C
to second G above middle C and back down, with fingering numbers]

[similar staff with quadruplet sequences beginning at middle-C:
C D E F, D E F G, E F G A, and so forth, ending (exceptionally)
F G A B C at second C above middle-C, with fingering numbers]

[similar staff with quadruplet sequences down from second C above
middle-C: C B A G, B A G F, A G F E, and so forth, ending F E D C at
middle-C, with fingering numbers]

[page no.] 7

[two-hand exercises]

[treble staff, sixteen measures, most with two coincident whole notes
per measure, upper notes labeled "Right Hand." and lower notes "Left
Hand.", with fingering numbers.  Sequence is:
    1   3   2   3   1   1   4   1   3   2   4   1   4   2   3   1
R:  C   D   E   D   C   C   B   C   D   E   F   G   F   E   D   C

L:  C   B   C   B   C   E   D   E   F   G   A   B   A   C   B   C
    1   3   1   3   1   3   2   3   1   4   2   3   2   1   2   1 ]

[treble staff, fourteen measures repeated plus one, with coincident
pairs of repeated quarter notes in each measure, with fingering
numbers.  Sequence is:
    1   3   2   4   1   3   2   4   2   3   1   4   2   2[sic]  1
R:* C   D   E   F   G   A   B   C   B   A   G   F   E   D       C

L:  C   B   C   D   E   F   G   A   G   F   E   D   C   B       C
    4   1   4   2   3   1   4   2   4   1   3   2   4   1       4 ]

* These notes are repeated by the action of the fingers on the studs
and not by the action of the bellows.

[page no.] 8

[treble staff, thirty-two measures with melody in right hand and
counter-melody in left hand, same number and duration of notes in both

[treble staff in 3/4, nine measures with melody in right hand, to each
single melody note three ascending bass notes--e.g., C E G, D F G, C E
G, B D G, and so forth, with fingering numbers]

[treble staff, ten measures with melody in right hand, to each single
melody note four bass notes--e.g., C E G E, D F G F, C E G E, B D G D,
and so forth, with fingering numbers]

   In learning, the right hand notes with their stems upwards should
be first practised only, and then the left hand in a similar manner,
when, each part being well performed separately, both may be played

[page no.] 9







* When the C follows G on the right end the thumb may if convenient be
used for the latter.

[page no.] 10





[page no.] 11





GERMAN AIR.  Schultz.


[page no.] 12





[page no.] 13









[page no.] 14





[page no.] 15



* By permissions of Messrs. BEALE & CHAPPELL.

[page no.] 16

L'AMO L'AMO.  Bellini.




[page no.] 17



[page no.] 18





[page no.] 19



[page no.] 20



       Wheatstone & Co. Inventors & Patentees of the Concertina.
               20, Conduit Strt. Regent Strt. LONDON

                             28 JY 55

[above imprint shows deposit at Brit.Mus. "28 JY 55" = 28 July 1855]